Categories
News

Soon Global Warming Skeptics Won’t Have an Ice Shelf To Stand On!

The global warming facts are very simple, the composition of the earth’s atmosphere does affect the earth’s climate due to the well known and undisputed greenhouse effect. CO2 levels are higher today than they were 100 years ago due to mankind’s burning of vast amounts of fossil fuels combined with massive destruction of forests globally.

The earth’s atmospheric CO2 levels would be even higher today if it were not for the oceans absorbing more than 25% of it, in turn creating a whole new host of problems for the world’s oceans.

For a great debate on climate change, watch the 2 hour Munk Debate on climate change from December 1 2009, featuring:

Pro

Elizabeth May

We need to look at all of Canada’s priorities, but we must address the climate crisis . . . if we fail to address it, nothing else we do makes any difference.”

George Monbiot
“The real costs of climate change are not measured in dollars and pounds, the real costs are measured in lives and in ecosystems . . . immeasurable.”

Con

Bjorn Lomborg

. . . we are knowingly squandering colossal sums of money (on climate change) while fractional sums can save millions of lives right now.”

Lord Nigel Lawson

We have entered a new age of unreason which threatens to be as economically harmful as it is disquieting. It is from this, above all, that we need to save the planet.”

Categories
News

Ontario’s Dirty Secret – A Real Eye Opener!

Ontario imported $21 billion worth of oil in 2008 and burnt 75% of it, or $16 billion for transportation fuels. This is a huge amount of money leaving Ontario’s economy year after year.

Imagine the economic benefit to Ontario if we could cut our oil imports in half by the adoption of electric vehicles! There’s a lot of money being burnt that could otherwise stay within the economy of hardworking Ontarians!

The resulting reduced demand for oil created by the adoption of EV’s would also serve to bring down the cost of remaining oil imports for applications that still demand the benefits of fossil fuel energy, applications not easily displaced by battery electric systems.

Read below for an eye opening report dated January 2009 from forestethics.org, a combined Canada-US organization.

Freedom from Dirty Oil: Ontario’s Tar Sands Decision by Matt Price, Environmental Defence and Gillian McEachern, Forest Ethics

Categories
Education

Patent Basics – USA

Definition: A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state (national government) to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for public disclosure of an invention.

Purpose: Success of a patent application results in the government granting the creator or assignee monopoly control and explicit right to preclude others from making, using, selling or offering for sale the subject matter as defined by the patent claim(s) for some limited period of time. The monopoly incentive secures the assignees right to financial benefit, helping to enable a prosperous society.

Types: There are three types of patents within the United States Patent and Trademark Office USPTO that define the general nature of an invention.

Utility patents may be granted to anyone who invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof;

Design patents may be granted to anyone who invents a new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture; and

Plant patents may be granted to anyone who invents or discovers and asexually reproduces any distinct and new variety of plant.

Claim(s): The most important aspect of a patent is its claim. The claim relates the invention to its commercial application, or “art”, to which the patent pertains. This is where the value of a patent lies, and is the focal point of most legal proceedings. The claim illustrates the technical use and various embodiments of the invention by setting limits on the extent of protection conferred or sought by the patent.

Protection: The current patent term in the United States is 20 years which provides a sustainable competitive advantage to the assignee, usually a commercial enterprise or corporation, to directly or indirectly commercialize their invention for profit. The patent, in and of itself, provides no legal protection to a patent holder, protection only comes in the form of an infringement lawsuit filed by a patent holder against a patent infringer, making the defense of patents a rich mans game and not a simple process.

Process: In the United States, an inventor has a period of one year to file a provisional patent application from the date of first public disclosure, first public sale, or first public offer to sell an invention. A provisional application serves as a place holder within the USPTO for the eventual filing of a non-provisional application. The provisional application applies only to utility patents and can be as short or extensive as necessary to encompass the nature of the invention including drawings, data, and descriptions, but can be void of any claim(s), oaths, or information disclosure statements.

Once opened, a provisional application can be updated and expanded upon for a period of one year during which time a full non-provisional patent application must be filed in order to benefit from the earlier filing date and support provided by the provisional application. To be useful, the material contained in the provisional filing must adequately support as best as possible the subject matter of the claim(s) made in the non-provisional application. Once granted, the patent date will become the non-provisional application filing date.

Jurisdiction: For a small company with limited time and money, the largest and most fruitful market to apply for patent protection is the USA. Then depending on the nature of the invention, potential for profit, and further need for protection, additional applications can be made with other jurisdictions around the world as deemed necessary. Unfortunately there is no such thing as an international patent.

To be safe, all filings should be made as early as possible since most jurisdictions consider anything filed one year past any public disclosure makes the invention public domain, and voids any right for patent protection.


Cost: For a small entity, if done by oneself working directly with the USPTO, and preferably written by the inventor, filing for a patent is initially more of a time consuming process than a financial expense. For a small business, the cost to file a provisional patent is only US $110, plus the cost of a non-provisional patent which is US $165. After which, the bulk of the expense becomes the patent maintenance fees of US $490 due after 3.5 years, US $1,240 due after 7.5 years, and US $2,055 due after 11.5 years. All costs are double for non-small entities.